THE ORIGIN OF THE YEARLY COUNTING
An investigation of the true and hidden intention of the definition of the
year 1 A.D. and its relation to the year 2000.
(see: Part II). Excerpts from the new Factstory "WIRKLICHT" by Sepp Rothwangl
I. The precession
1. The "occidental" constant of precession
2. The "oriental" constant of precession
3. Other assumed constants of precession
II. Planetary periods
III. The common multiple of the planetary periods
1. Chinese Zhuanxu dynasty and era
2. Aryabhata of Kusumpara and Kali Yuga
3. Teukros the Babylonian
8. Oktaeteris and the Olympic games
10. Plato's pupils
12. The Babylonian eternal planetary tablets
14. Astronomical inscription Keskinto / Rhodes
16. The Persian Sassanides
17. The Persian Islam
18. The Arab Al Biruni
20. Venerable Bede
21.Gervasius of Tilbury
22. The Jewish calendar
23. Medieval glossary of astronomical and astrological terms
IV. Historical and literary sources of planetary groupings
1. The establishment of the Shang dynasty 1576 BCE by Ch'eng T'ang.
2. The Chou dynasty 1059 BCE.
3. The battle of Cheng p'u of 632 BCE.
4. The Han dynasty and the alignment of planets of 205 BCE.
5. The An Lu-shan rebellion of 750 CE.
6. The Sung dynasty of 967 CE.
7. Genghis Khan's battle of 1226 CE
8. The "Deluge Conjunction" of 1186 CE
9. Chaucer 1385
10. The "Deluge Conjunction" of 1524 CE.
11. Rudolf Hess 1941 CE.
12. The best-seller "Jupiter Effect"
13 . Richard Noone's book " 5-5-2000. Ice, The Ultimate Disaster "
14. The Nika revolt on January 532 CE?
V. Historically and religiously delivered triple conjunctions of Jupiter and
Saturn and assumption.
1. The triple conjunction in the constellation Aries 1536 - 1535 BCE. Moses?
2. The foundation of Persepolis by Darius in 522 BCE.
3. The Star of Bethlehem, 7 BCE.
4. Bar Kochba, the "star-son" (born 113 CE?)
5. The conjunction of the Arab people 571 CE.
6. The year of the Gregorian Calendar reform in 1582 CE.
The following article answers the basic questions, why in all of the years, in the recent year we count the year 2000. It researches the base of time calculation and the nature of the calendar, which led to the current Gregorian calendar, from the view of the concept of the world at that time, and brings a mystery to the light. The result of this research is so rich and conclusive that a new axiom of the temporal orientation of the Western calendar must be expressed. It is shown that the concept of the world and the astronomical knowledge of the ancient peoples is of outstanding importance for the definition of the Christian yearly counting. As a consequence, we have the year 2000 taking place. But "why is this year 2000?" "Because in antiquity, it was already assumed and determined that in 2000 the Age ends!"
We must go back in time about 1,500 years to consider the scientific, political and astronomical concepts of the world. The earlier concept of the world was based primarily upon the visible appearance of the sky and the coincidental, simultaneous occurrence with other, usually weather-related, events. The ancient world view linked these events as causal, or causing each other.In today's view, this would be considered rather superstitious.
Hardly anyone knows the beginnings of the Christian yearly counting, which today is used around the globe, or its roots. It is most exciting to discover these roots. If the old concept of the world seems long gone, nevertheless its results are still everywhere around us in metaphors and visible religious icons. So a concept of the world is, in principle, a matter of faith. People believe in the pictures and metaphors with which they describe the world. For believers, a description can be the world itself, religiously expressed as the words of God.
At the beginning of all of man's efforts to discover the rules and laws of nature was the attempt to derive terrestrial events from the stars' movements, to determine if the occurrence of one caused the other. The words of an ivory plaque from Abydos, from the first Egyptian dynasty, supplies us with the perhaps oldest certification of this linkage between star motion and events on earth. The ancient Egyptians worshipped Sothis (Sirius) as Bringer of the new year and the inundation of the Nile. The background of this star worship is relatively simple from today's view: the star Sirius emerged in the morning sky at its heliacal rising, due to the orbit of the earth around the sun, once the Nile flood came. This coincidence of astronomical and meteorological events was linked tightly by the old Egyptians until, temporally and logically, Sirius finally became the releaser of the Nile flood, although this fixed star, located eight light-years away, has little to do with the rain at the source of the Nile. The idea that the position of certain stars or constellations in the sky determined "fortunate (lucky) days" is obviously age-old and reminds us of these verses from "Works and Days" by the Greek historian Hesiod (~700 BCE):
If the stars of the Pleiades, the daughters of Atlas, climb up,
Then begin to harvest; but plow, if they descend.
For 40 nights and days they are hidden,
But if in the circling run of the year they appear again,
Then begin to sharpen your sickle for the new harvest!
If sixty days after the sun has turned,
And Zeus the winter days has terminated,
Then the Arcturus star will leave the holy flood of Oceanus behind
And will rise in the first radiating light of the dawn.
Hesiod describes here first morning rising and last evening setting of the Pleiades and the evening rising of Arcturus. Similar farmer calendars and rules were important to agriculture everywhere and are still in use. From this developed the concept that the stars are a cause for all seasonal, climactic, and weather-modifying processes. The same stars always appeared at the same time as the salient weather phenomena. Finally, the repeated appearance of the same star with the same weather phenomenon led people to react like Pavlov's dogs when he rang the bell at feeding time.
The Persian astronomer al-Biruni (~1000 CE) expressed this alleged relation between cause and effect: If one has no roof but the sky above him, and it is covered by nothing different, and if above him the stars move always in the same sequence, he links it with the bases of his living and the knowledge of the times.
From this concept of the world, the early cultures and the celestial religions developed (probably because of the non-existence of TV, which supplies "time and pictures" now, while in former times, people obtained the time for themselves from flickering stars, and myths supplied the pertinent pictures). Certain constellations of the equinoxes became particularly important as pivots of the seasons in all cultures, but this importance was lost as time passed, due to the precession of the equinoxes, which caused the constellations to lose their seasonal functions when they were replaced by new ones. The constellation before the rising of the morning sun on the first day of spring became the New Year messenger and orientation-constellation of early cultures.
Franz Boll, the incontestable connoisseur of early astronomy, writes, and gets the straight connection between religion and star motions most clearly: With the stars' motion, people measure time. Uneducated people, whose base is not knowledge but faith, say that "the motion of the stars determines time!" From this the religious derive: "Heaven guides the earth."
For the ancient astronomers, apart from the seasonal run of the fixed stars, there were additional sky movements to describe and their run to measure in relationship with terrestrial life. By the "geocentric" view, which was the basis of the ancient concept of the world, they sought to explain two particularly puzzling circulations of the sky: the precession and the planetary motions.
I. The precession
As mentioned above, the precession is recognizable by the constellation that is visible directly before sunrise on the first spring day in the east, in the morning dawn. By the gyration of Earth's axis, these constellations shift. Thus, however, firmly stamped rules, such as the temporal and causal linkage of Sirius-rising to the Nile flood lose their validity. Expressed differently: the Nile flood does not arrive with Sirius any longer! The same applies to the constellations, which announce spring and the former beginning of the year. The loss of the validity of these fixed temporal and religious rules is a paradigm change. The transformation and shift of the constellations and their related cults are demonstrated in many myths.
The following spring constellations are related to us by myths:
Cancer: Age of which the first myths report as previous epoch: Pikku and Mikku, Northern and Southern donkey (~10,000 years ago) in the Gilgamesh epos
Gemini: Age of twins: Golden age, paradise, Romulus and Remus, Cain and Abel, etc. (~ 8,000 years ago)
Taurus: Age of bull: Apis, Taurus/Minotaurus, golden calf, Baal, Nandhi (~5,800 years ago)
Aries: Age of ram: Amun, golden fleece, Moses (~3,500 years ago)
Pisces: Age of fish: ICHTHYS, IHS, Vishnu from a fish born (~2000 years ago)
This view of the spring constellations of the almost half-passed Platonic year has left considerable tracks in advanced cultures. The actual cause of the change of these constellations was only understood in the last 2000 years.
1. The "occidental" constant of precession of 100 years per 1°
In historical time, Kidinnu (~300 BCE Babylonian astronomer, in Greek called Kidenas) was the first to note the precession. This movement was called by Hipparchus of Rhodes (~150 BCE) "progressing the equinoxes," and he believed it was shown by an older position of the stars delivered by Timocharis (~ 300 BCE) to the value of 100 years each 1° . (At Timocharis' time, the distance between Spika and the autumn-equinox-point was 8° and decreased over the 150 years to Hipparchus to 6°). Three hundred years later, the Alexandrian Ptolemy (~150 CE) measured the celestial place of Spika again and determined a deviation of 4° since Hipparchus. He assumed again the constant with a value of 100 years each 1°, as Hipparchus did.
Due to the observations, which resulted in the value of 2° in 150 years (Hipparchus) or 4° in 300 years (Ptolemy), the two would actually have had to come to the more exact value of 75 years each 1°. (150/2 or 300/4 = 75y/1°). The constant of 75 years would come very close to the today's modern value of 71.66 years, by which the entire precession gyroscope constitutes 25,800 years (25,800: 360° = 71.66). Obviously, in ancient times the calculation of the precession was influenced by the sexagesimal number system used at that time, whereby for 30° precession the figure of 3,000 years was assumed.
Plutarch tells us about this value: "Theopomp says that after the Magis, in sequence every 3,000 years the one of the Gods prevails... and afterwards the rule of the other one follows" (Isis and Osiris, 46).
This constant of precession with 100 y/1° was used in the entire Christian Western world as an approximate value. In 1230 CE, Professor Johannes of Sacrobosco (John Holywood), at Paris University, taught the following words (from Spera materialis, medieval German by meyster Conradt Heynfogel): Doch die acht himel wider fleyssent sich disem lauff in jren aygen leufften, davon der acht himel walztet in hundert jaren nur ein grad. (But the eight heavens [= spheres] flow against this direction, according to their own paths. Of them, the eighth heaven rotates [= precesses] but 1° in 100 years.)
2. The "oriental" constant of precession has 66.6 years per 1°
Attentive astronomers might have realized in antiquity that the value of 100 years per 1° is much too high (3,000 years for 30°), i.e., that the precession of the equinoxes takes place faster. They estimated the value of 30° for 2,000 years, which results in a value of 66 2/3 year for 1° . All medieval Persian and Arab astronomers figured with this value, as shown in the following section.
The Arab star catalogues of 800 - 900:
Since Ptolemy, all Arab star catalogues of this time indicate the constant of precession as 66 2/3 years, which results in one duration of 2,000 years for 30°.
There is this:
· Al-Khwarizmi (~800 CE), al zij Sindhind.
· "Tabulae probatae" or "az-Zig al-mumtan" (829-830 CE)
· Al Battani (880 CE) "al-Zij," a star catalog with 533 stars. It calculates the annual precession with 54'', which results exactly in 30° in 2000 years . (54'': 60: 60 x 2000 = 30°).
· As-Sufi (964) fixed star book.
· Al Biruni (973 - 1048 CE) al Qanun al-Masud (Masudi Canon).
· Arab fixed star catalogue from 1 October 1112 CE (according to Paul Kunitzsch, with a difference of 14.47° since Ptolemy.)
· The "Libros del Saber" of Alfonse of Castillia (1252-1284)
· Judah Ben Verga of Lisbon.
For the duration of 2000 years, during which a constellation (~30°) holds its function as spring constellation, there is also a New Testament source that supplies an interesting parallel:
John of Patmos writes in Revelation:
Here is wisdom: Who can understand it, calculate the number of the animal (zodiac)! Because it is the number of a man; its number is 6-6-6. (Rev. 13.18). By the acceptance of a precession-constant of 66.6 years for 1°, the migration of the spring equinox point each 30° takes exactly 2,000 years, if one presupposes that the specification at that time were made in decimal numbers! Perhaps also the apocalyptic number of 144,000 gives us a clue to the precession- constant of 66.6 years, because it is not only the result of 12 x 12000, but also gives the Babylonian sexagesimal figure system special sense. There the number 60 was the largest number representable with one character, and it also held the value of the zero at the same time. 60 x 60 x 60 x 2/3 = 144,000. Consider also: The fraction 2/3 results in the value of the number 6-6-6! "..and I heard the number of the sealed ones: 144,000" (Rev. 7.4). and I saw: and see, the lamb was on the mountain Zion and with it 144,000 (Rev. 14.1, Rev. 14,3; 21.17).
In a biblical and calendrical context, this number represents the year, the
weight of gold that came to Solomon in one year was six hundred and sixty-six
talents of gold (I
Kings 10:14; II Chron. 9:13).
Another relation of the number 666 to the zodiac is shown by the 36 Decans (10 days each) that divide the Egyptian zodiac. You can see these Decans in the famous Zodiac of Dendera or the Cenotaph of Seti I.
In the Pythagorean algebra, expressed in the Pythagorean oath
and the Tetrakyts, the number 36 is related to 666. The addition of 1+2+3 ...
+35+36 gives 666.
The knowledge on this holy numbers seem to be influenced by Pythagorean mystcism. The Neopythagorean Nichomachos of Gerasa (i.e. the modern village Dscherasch in Jordan, on the street to Amman) reports in about 100 CE as a member of this secret religious brotherhood tells about the fishing miracle of Pythagoras, which is mirrored in the New Testament with the miracle of catching the 153 fish (John 21:11). The number 153 comes from the of the figures 1 until 17: 1+2+3 ...+17 =153. Number 17 is the next after the holy number 16 of the Pythagoreans.
3. Other assumed precession constants:
An assumed faster precession of only 1,000 years each zodical sign, or 30°, is suggested by the followers and believers of the Zervan, Zarathustra and Mithras suggest: each character of the Zodiac governs the time for 1,000 years (Ulama e Islam). 1,000 years per character corresponds to a precession constant of 33.3 years for 1°. That they assumed a connection between terrestrial and celestial events is shown in the following text: all good and all bad things that happen to people and other creatures are caused by the 12 zodiacal signs and the seven planets. (chapter 12 Menoke chrat).
It is shown thus that in all of antiquity, the calculation of the precession
using the number of whole thousands of years was of the highest importance. This
was rounded up on whole thousands of years. Only in the Alfonsinian tables of
1424 CE is the more exact value of 75 years / 1° for the precession-constant
found for the first time, by which the duration of 2,250 years for 30° would
Modern astronomy indicates the value of the precession as 71.66y/1°. A full gyroscopic cycle takes about 25,800 years, but this cycle is not exact, resulting in about 2150 years for 30°.
Position of the autumn equinox point due to precession, according to ancient astronomical reports.
II. The planetary periods:
To observe the course of the year, the monthly changing 12 zodiacal constellations were used, and for the precession, the spring constellations were temporal guides. But prehistoric people already had oriented themselves with the run of the planets and detected an equivalency of the motion of the heavenly bodies with human biological rhythms:
The simplest and most important interval timer was the moon, which, in the old concept of the world, was ranked like the sun among the planets, as was the sun. The year is divided by five of its half phases harmoniously into five sections, reflected in the fairy tale of hare and the hedgehog: 29.5 days x 2.5 ~ 73 days; 73 days x 5 = 365 days (1 normal year). These five equal parts of the year are also mirrored in the 5 trilithons and 73 round stones of Stonehenge as well as in the positions of the old catholic St. Mary's feast days, which are 73 days apart (July 2nd , Sept 8th, Nov. 21st, Feb. 2nd, April 15th .
The myth of the Greater Bear constellation describes as a celestial rule the biological
choice of all adult women: the possibility of following the moon or Venus, i.e.,
to be pregnant or not (which does not necessarily mean the same as virgin or not
Because a whole moon cycle corresponds to the a woman's menstrual cycle, the moon became the interval timer for a nonpregnant (virgin) female. This is marvellously expressed in the myth of Kallisto, the Greater Bear, who offended against the holy order, and therefore was thrown into the northern sky. As the Greater Bear (part of it is the Big Dipper), never again can she take a bath in the sea (because it is circumpolar constellation and never sets), so that lovers will never approach her again, because Kallisto stinks.
The history of their sacrilege is briefly told: (version 2, version 3)
Kallisto (the most beautiful one) was a companion of Artemis, the goddess of the moon. Artemis, also Goddess of virginity, only allowed virgins to be her companions. Zeus, however, seduced and raped Kallisto, who became pregnant.. Kallisto tried to conceal what happened and remained, although now pregnant, a companion of the moon goddess. This broke the rules of virgin goddes Artemis, because pregnant woman do not follow the moon, having no female period (menstruation)! The moral of the story: Virgins do not bear children! (except of course holy ones, if they really exist ; =).
As a pregnant woman, Kallisto would have to change from a companion in the attendants of Artemis to another goddess, the goddess of the sexual love, Aphrodite, embodied in the planet Venus. Venus and Moon have synchronicities in their synodic periods: 73 x 8 = 584; 584 x 8 = 365 x 8 (8 normal years!) = 29.5 x 99 (-0.5)!
Eight non-leap solar years (of 365 days) result in five synodic Venus-periods (Venus-years), as well as 99 moons. This common period of Moon and Venus is considered only a rough value. They very quickly move apart, so that after 40 years, a difference of almost two weeks results in their phases. On the basis of these integral commensurable periods functioned many old-time calendar calculations (Octaeteris), or are pictorially delivered in myths (e.g.: Briar Rose, or Sleeping Beauty or the Maya calendars).
Within these eight years, the positions of Venus along the zodiac describe a Pentagram. As a result of its path, Venus appears an average of 584 days for the first time as the morning star and holds this function for ~266 days, and after a period of invisibility, is followed by a ~266 day period as the evening star. The 266 days of Venus as evening star or morning star (in Latin Lucifer) correspond exactly to the average human gestation period! No wonder the planet Venus became the goddess of love.
Kallisto, the myth of the Greater Bear, describes as a celestial rule the biological choice of all adult women: the possibility of following the moon or Venus, i.e., to be pregnant or not (which does not necessarily mean the same as virgin or not virgin).
Jupiter orbits around the zodiac in about 12 years. Each year, it is located in another constellation and divides the sky harmoniously into 12 sections. It is possible that Jupiter's movement could be responsible for the 12 sections of the zodiac, later found also in the dials of clocks, the 12 months, the 12 apostles, etc.
Saturn needs 29.5 years for its orbit through the zodiac. Almost every 20 years it meets with Jupiter in a conjunction and describes in such a way with Jupiter in 59 years a Trigon (Grand Trine), which moves slowly at the zodiac. All conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn take place about three times in the same constellation, with the respective elements assigned to the constellations (earth, water, air, fire). By the position of the earth a simultaneous decline of the planets can occur, so that they step three times into a close conjunction (triple alignment). If this occurred for the first time in the respective spring constellation, it announced a new age (star of Bethlehem, Pharaonian prophecy)
Mars removes after 400 synodic Mars periods, that is, exactly 854 years, with the Sun, Moon, Jupiter and Saturn at the same celestial place. This period was well-known in Mesopotamia. The Chaldean Magis were priests of the planet Mars, called Nergal. So the chief of the magis had the title "Rab Mag" and was called Nergal Sharezar (Jeremiah 39:3 and 39:13).
The linkage of Mars to the spring or the beginning of the year, still shows up in many ways. The new year originally began in the spring in Mesopotamia and in ancient Rome and with the month March, which was sacred to the planet Mars. In German, the word "ausmerzen" --"eradicate"-- comes from the "agricultural god," Mars, in an age when the swords were supposedly still plowshares.
As shown, the knowledge and the positions of the planets was of high importance, not only in daily life, but also for determining traditional feasts and religious holidays, from which arose the calendar. The calendar itself comes from "calare" (Latin: calling) and "calendae," which were the first days of the month and were fixed by the Roman pontifex maximus.
III. The common multiple of all planet periods. The return of the Great Year.
As the Moon, Sun, and Venus meet after eight years at the same star place, since their periods indicate a common multiple, then someone in antiquity imagined the relation of all planets to each other. From this the notion of the "Great Year" developed.
Babylonian astronomy and mathematics were the basis for this idea or,
as Plato expresses it in the following record: after this, all the stars,
whose function was to bring the time out, arrived into each one's course... is
it nevertheless possible to come to realize that the perfect number brings the
perfect year at the time when the termination of the mutual rates of all eight (planetary)
orbits arrived at complete agreement and (the planets) again achieved their
Plato thought on the one hand that the planets, which were Gods, not only brought out the time, but also directed the fate of all creatures. If one would know the common multiple of all circulations - which was called "Great Year" - then one would know the period, where the eternal return begins again from the beginning! ( See: "The large year and its eternal return " by B. L Van Waerden, series Hermes 80)
Many quotations and ancient time calculations show that this thought pattern
was almost global. The following listing with quotations and references on the
large year prove it:
1. The beginning of the Chinese Zhuanxu/Hsia dynasty and era in 1953 BCE.
The astronomers Kevin Pang of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/NASA and John Bangert of the Naval Observatory found the "Chinese Holy Grail," as they call it, by a text from the first pre-Christian century of Hong Fan Zhuan, which says: the old Zhuanxu calendar began about 2000 years ago in the morning dawn at the beginning of spring, when the Sun and the new moon and the five planets met in the constellation of Yingshi (Pegasus)." The book was written by Liu Xiang, who lived from 77 BCE to 9 BCE. Before the morning dawn of March 5th, 1953 BCE, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter were in the western sky completely in the proximity of the Pegasus square.
"People have always regarded such rare celestial encounters with awe and foreboding," Pang said. "Recent planetary conjunctions have simultaneously raised hopes for the dawning of the Age of Aquarius and portents for the world's apocalyptic end," he said.
2. Aryabhata of Kusumpara in India (531 CE)
At the beginning the Brahman was without start or end, unborn, lighting up, constantly, unfathomably, never fully recognizably (Mahabharata)... the next section of the time is the Nimeshas (winking of eye). The year is called day and night of the gods. The next unit is the year of the gods to 360 Earth years, afterwards comes the Yugas. (Aryabhata, Indian Astronomer, around 510 CE). The beginning of the Kali Yuga is indicated as February 17th, 3102 BCE, where a conjunction of all planets took place. (One Yuga takes at least 432,000 years, i.e. 12 x 36,000).
In this connection it is particularly interesting that, in the words of Aryabhata, 3,600 years of the Kali Yuga had gone when he was 23 years old. Aryabhata thus in the year 499 CE was 23 years old.
Picture: The planets BCE 3102-02-17
3. Teukros the Babylonian.
The World Year takes 360,000 years (Paranatellonta)
4. Oinopides (approx. 440 BCE).
Eudemos tells in his history of astronomy that Oinopides found first the orbit of the zodiac and the return of the Great Year. (Eudemos history of the astronomy, quotes the paper of the Derkyllides, Timaios, Plato, around 300 BCE)
Oinopides discovered the animal set (Zodiac) and the large year, with 59 years (Theon of Smyrna and Aeitus).
... there is a yearly unit, which Aristotle calls rather the Greatest Year than a large year. It concerns the period in which the circular paths of Sun, Moon, and the five planets will pass through in such a way that all these heavenly bodies are located in the same constellation.... The time in which all planets meet again in the same sign is the "Greatest Year". In the winter of this year will be a cataclysm (flood disaster), in the summer will be an Ekpyrosis (world fire). It seems to be that, alternating in these periods, the world is afflicted by times of conflagration, times of inundations. (Censorinus, De die natale, ch. 18)
6. The Stoics.
The planets return to the same celestial place, where each individual planet was at the start, when the world assembled itself; in certain time circulations the planets accomplish the burning and destruction of all things; afterwards the world steps again on to the same place, while the stars again similarly turn around; each individual thing, which is in the earlier time developed, will re-establish without modification again; then will be again a Socrates and again a Plato, and there will exist... everything likewise and unchanged even into the smallest conditions. (Nemesios, Anth.38)
The so called Great Year comes into being, when all (planets) return again to the same place, from where they started their movements ... (Aetios; Diels, Doxographi Graeci, p. 363)
7. The Pythagoreans.
There exists a common multiple of all planetary runs, i.e. the Large Year , after whose period all planets again come into the same place. If one believes the Pythagoreans, then I will also in the future, as everything after the number returns, and I will tell you here again fairy tales, holding this stick in the hand, while you will sit likewise before me. Likewise everything else will repeat itself! (Eudemos, a pupil of the Aristotle and teacher at the Lykeion in Athens about the Pythagoreans).
The period of eight years was assumed by most in Greece as the true large year, because it consists of complete returning years, because there are 99 complete months and eight completely returning years there is one year of the Pythagorean Philolaus with 59 years... furthermore the year, which Aristotle calls not large, but greatest: that brings together the Sun, Moon and the five planets, so that they align in the same sign, in which they were once simultaneous, and meet again. Heraclitus and Linus tell the Large Year is 10,800 years, Casandrus tells it is 3,600,000 years" (i.e. 3 or 10 x 60 x 60) (Censorinus, De die natali, chapter 18)
8. Octaeteris and Olympic games.
This large year measured after a four-year cycle seemed to be more appropriate, if one had discovered that the sun year consists of 365 days and approximately one quarter-day, which complete themselves every four years to one complete day. For this reason games for the Olympic Zeus are celebrated in Elis and for the Capitolinian Jupiter in Rome with the return of any fifth year (this was the Roman way of counting). Also this time interval, which alone the sun' s orbit, but not the moon's, seemed to fit, one doubled and made the Oktaeteris (8 years), which was called again Ennaeteris, because its starting year returned in each case in the ninth year (in Roman way of counting). That this period is identical with the genuine "large year," one assumed mostly in Greece, because it consists of full courses of the year and full moons, as it correctly should be characteristic for the large year. It is computed from 2,922 complete runs of the day, 99 complete moon orbits, and eight complete courses of the year. According to the general opinion this Oktaeteris was created by Eudoxos from Knidos. (Censorinus, De die natale, Kap. 18)
...it did not occur only because of religious reasons that in the Hippodrome the column that marked the starting point had an altar with the constellation of the twins (Pausanias V 15,6, about the Olympic games)
Other ancient sources on the Olympic games report of seven courses in the round of the hippodrome, according to the seven old (naked eye) planets. In the center of the Hippodrome around a pyramid were the altars of the seven heavenly gods: Zeus, Kronos, Ares, Aphrodite, Hermes, Artemis, and Apollo.
9. Plato, Greek philosopher (~ 400 BCE).
After this, all stars, whose function it was to create time, arrived into each other's path... and had become living beings and they had noted, what was prescribed for them, there they began their cycle in the course of the ecliptic, which is diagonal, because it crosses the course of the equator... Nonetheless it is possible to realize the fact that the perfect number brings the perfect year then to the time of termination, when the mutual rates of all eight circulations arrive in complete agreement and again reach their starting point, based on the circle of the steadily turning equator. (Timaios 39 a-d)
Another translation by Benjamin Jowett:
And yet there is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfils the perfect year when all the eight revolutions, having their relative degrees of swiftness, are accomplished together and attain their completion at the same time, measured by the rotation of the same and equally moving. After this manner, and for these reasons, came into being such of the stars as in their heavenly progress received reversals of motion, to the end that the created heaven might imitate the eternal nature, and be as like as possible to the perfect and intelligible animal.
… the natural catastrophes are determined by the stars (if they return to their initial starting position), but people choose their demons and their fates themselves (State X. 617e)
10. Plato's pupils.
They were enthusiastic and obsessed with the idea that everything is subject to an order and a higher law, and nothing in nature is based on a random origin.
...they (Anaxagoras and Demokrit, the opponents of Plato) maintain, that fires and water and earth and air would have their origin in nature and in coincidence, and none of it in the art. And the later celestial bodies, the sun, the moon, and the stars developed out of these first, completely soulless items... ... therefore it happens, that the young people expire on godless actions, since there would be no gods of the condition, how one has to imagine it according to the regulation of the laws... .. who does not obey however the laws, must be punished either with death or with beatings and prison or with withdrawal of the civil honours or with loss of fortune and banishing ... ...Now it is even in reverse, as those people say, which thought about the stars and imagined them as soulless natures. ... The stars, if they were soulless, could never move so accurately after these admirable calculations, because they would possess no insight (Laws 12, 889-966)
Kap51. About the largest years and perfect returning of the 7 stars: Saturn achieves the largest return in 265 years, Jupiter in 427, Mars in 284, Helios in 1461, Venus in 1151, Mercury in 480, the Moon in 25 years. The cosmic return occurs in 1,753,005 years... then at the end of the Large Year all planets come into the 30th degree of Cancer or in the 1st degree of Leo together and complete fulfilment is attained. (Catal. Cod. astrol. Graec. I, 1898)
12. The Babylonian planet tablets (200 - 90 BCE)
In these tablets are listed innumerable integral large periods of planets with the aim to find a common multiple of all periods.
|synodic period||siderial period||years|
The Enuma Anu Enlil gives us thousands of omen-formulas with requests and swearing. They have the basic idea that the terrestrial appearances are chained to the heavenly appearances by a convincing fate. (As in heaven, so also upon Earth.) On the base of the periods of the planet tablets are situated darkness periods of sun and moon periods (Saros-cycle).
13. Berossos, priest of
Marduk-Bel, director/conductor of the astrological
school at Kos (280 BCE).
Berossos, priest of the Bel, says that this is caused by the motions of the stars; he stated that the stars' movements determines the time of a fire disaster and a flooding. A fire will rage on earth if all stars, which move now in different courses, accumulate in Cancer, i.e., if they are under the same place, so that an even line can go through all their places; these signs have the greatest power if this transformation of the cosmos takes place at the turning points of the year (Seneca, Quaestiones of naturales III 29)
Berossos indicates for the duration of the "Great Year" the number of 432,000. (The way this number is written in the Babylonian hexadecimal system would correspond in the decimal way of writing to 2-0-0-0; 2 x 60 x 60 x 60).
14. Astronomical inscription from Keskinto / Rhodes / Greece
The Large Year takes 291,400 years (i.e., 200 x 31 x 47 years). Annual details for sidereal and synodic circulation of the planets read:
Merkur: 291400 / 918,700;
Mars: 154,920 / 136,480;
Jupiter 24,500 / 266,900;
Saturn 9,920 / 281,480.
15. Ptolemy (around 150 CE).
... Oh! Zeus! all try to find using the so-called "tablets for eternal times," which tried to prove the homogeneous movement of cycles, however, they were not used properly and cant show any proof for it, so that some found the target not at all, the other at least achieved it to some extent. (Almagest, 9. Book, 2. Ch.)"
... So only and alone mathematics might give...to its scholars a reliable and irrefutable knowledge, which arithmetic and geometry give to the hand. That is also the reason that caused us to dedicate ourselves to their whole extent and all forces to this outstanding science, particularly however to that section that deals with the realization of the goddess and celestial bodies, because this science comes up alone in the investigation of an eternally continuous world. … that I am mortal, I know, and also, that my days are counted. But if I observe the spirit of the often-devoured circular paths of the stars, then I do not touch the earth with my feet any more: At the tables of the Zeus, I am refreshed with Ambrosia, food of the gods." (Almagest, Epigram)
16. The Persian Assassins (224 -642 CE).
Their astronomical tablets begin 3102 BCE with the acceptance of a common starting point of all planetary motions in the year when a conjunction in Pisces took place (according to Al Biruni called "Zij ash-Shah," called the tables of the Shah) See in addition the start of Kali Yuga in India!
17. The Persian Islam (around 800 CE), Abu
The most famous Islamic astrologer, Abu Ma'shar el-Bachi, called Albumasar, who died in 886 CE in Bagdad, suggested in his "book of the thousands" that one world year is assumed to be 360,000 years. At its start and end, a great flood and a conjunction of all planets takes place. Al-Sijzi, a later mathematician, wrote an abstract, which begins with the following quotation:
the majority of the scholars in India, in China, in the Roman empire, and in Babylon agree together on the same fact, that the seven planets at the start of the World's Year were located in a conjunction at the end of the constellation of Pisces, and they will return at the end of the World's Year to the same place.
Abu Mashar gives us in his "book of conjunctions" three references
to the source, from where he has the specification concerning the "Deluge-conjunction":
1. There are 3,671 years between the first year of the year of the Deluge and the first day of the year in which was the conjunction announcing the Arab people.
With the "conjunction of the Arab people" Abu Mashar meant the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation Libra of the year 571 CE. This alignment in Islam is called "The Conjunction of the Religions" (3672 years before 571 CE we find the year 3102 BCE). In the year 570 CE is supposed to be the birth of Mohammed!
2. And verily Anianus (or Abtenus) and others mentioned that between the beginning of the birth of Adam... and the Friday night on which was the Deluge was 2,226 years and one month and 23 days and 4 hours.
Anianus or Abtenus, of whom Abu Mashar tells here, is probably the Greek author Abydenos. This Berossos locates in a chronology (Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum IV) at the time of the regency of the mythical kings before the Deluge with a duration of 432,000 years.
3. And so there will be Adam from the birth of Adam ... to the first day of the year of the conjunction indicating the Arab people 5897 years and one month and 23 days and 4 hours. The calculation of Abu Mashar is actually in agreement, because 3671 + 2226 = 5897
18. The Persian astronomer Al Biruni (973 - 1048 CE).
The famous astronomer calculates the Great Deluge in 3102 BCE and the world year at 360,000 years (Masudian Canon).
Annus vero, qui mundanus vocatur, .... mundani ergo anni finis est, cum stellae omnes omniaque sidera quae aplanes habet a certo loco ad eundem locum ita remeaverint, … (In Somnium Scipionis 2,11,8-11) (The true year is called the World's Year, and it is then the last year , if all stars return to the same place.)
20. Bede, Catholic historian about 800 CE.
Annus magnus est, dum omnia sidera, certis cursibus exactis, ad lucum suum revertuntur, quem sexcentis annis solaribus Iosephus dicit impleri. (De temporibus 9) Annus magnus est, cum omnia simul errantia sidera ad sua queque loca, que simul habuere, recurrunt. (De temporum ratione 31) The Great Year takes place, with all wandering stars (meaning the planets) simultaneously returning to their same place, which they held before."
21. Gervasius of Tilbury, (around 1200 CE).
The Great Year will be full, if all planets return to their creation places, which occurs only after 530 years; finally it counts itself as a world year, which becomes full, if all stars returned to their initial points, which, as Josephus says, occurs only after 5,000 years. (OTIA IMPERIALIA 1.Off, chapter 6)
22. The Jewish calendar 3760 BCE.
The Jewish time calculation begins exactly at the autumn equinox day 5,760 years before the year 2000, thus 25th Sept. 3760 BCE. All planets with the exception of Mars were at this new moon day in the autumn constellation, Scorpio. The origination of this dating is uncertain. It might have been calculated in late antiquity back to this special planetary alignment. It is attributed to the Jewish scholar Hillel II. The name of Hillel might make sense also in reference to his program: "hilal" means "young moon" in the Arab language.
23. Medieval glossary of astronomical and astrological technical terms.
In the Austrian National Library in the Medieval collection of handwriting (ms 5438) there is found a glossary of Arab and Latin astronomical technical terms with exactly 59 glossary words (Lemmata) and their assertions on fol. 168 rb. Such glossaries were important for the use of the medieval astronomical tools.
They explained the sections of the astrolabs, e.g. in Lemma 18 and 25:
18. Megran id est mater instrumentii.
25. Alpheram id est equus.
"Megran" is derived from the Arab word almehan (al-mihwar) for hole and defined the central hole of the astrolab, which is secured by a tap, around which the mobile disks turn. "Alpheram" comes from the Arab word "al-faras" for horse and is the small horse-heading-like transverse safety lock pin, which protects the central tap of the astrolab. In addition, the glossary explains the use of the planetary tables:
Lemma 11 reads:
Era est quidem numerus annorum inventus in adequando planetas et primum habuit in quadam ciudate que cordoba vocatur que est in hyspania et distat ab occidente per 90 gradus.
Lemma 12: Radix planete id est verus locus planete in quo primo fuit inventus quando eius tabula fuit inventa.
Lemma 15: Punctus est omnis lucus siue spacium quod est inter augem ecentrici et centrum epicicli vel punctus est gradus minutum secundum sicut aut tmcas(?) castellum damus planeta camera.
Lemma 17: Anni expansi dicuntur quia expanduntur - per diuersas minucias partium vt vunus post aliumvunde alij sunt anni saturni alij Juois quos dinoscuntur menses et a mensibus dies et a diebus hore et ab horis gradus et a gradibus minutum Vnde multa sunt genera annorum ut arabum grecorum hebreorum indorum persarum latinorum.
Lemma 57: Alamei idem periodus id est terminus temporibus perseuerantis ad vnum esse. Alamei derives from Arabic "al-amad" and means "Time, considered with regard to its end" (Lane: Arabic-Engl Lexicon).
Lemma 58: peroxissimus id est grauamen.
Lemma 59: Crisis id est punctus terminalis temporibus.
As these quotations show, especially the last Lemma of this glossary, the medieval glossaries and planetary tablets were used to find a (suspected) terminal or final point of time.
IV. Historical sources of planetary groupings
Historical sources testify that mankind was literally accelerated again and
again by substantial planetary groupings or was tempted to political revolutions,
since they tried to derive from this a "heavens mandate." Not only
fear, but faith was often a reason to spur changes at times of planetary
Particularly in old China political changes often came during specific planetary alignments, as well as the establishment of new dynasties. A first example was already specified in the year 1953 BCE. Please compare this data and facts with the article "Conjunctions That Changed the World" written by Bradley Schaeffer in Sky&Telescope (May 2000)
1. The establishment of the Shang dynasty 1576 BCE by Ch'eng T'ang.
The close conjunction of all planets on 20 December 1576 BCE was cause to remove the 18th and last emperor of the Hsia dynasty, called Chieh, who was a cruel tyrant. A new king arose, a noble named Ch'eng T'ang, who started a successful rebellion and was at the beginning of the Shang dynasty.
2. The Chou dynasty 1059 BCE.
In order to remove the last barbarian Shang emperor, named Ti Hsin, the wise leader of the Chou region, called Wen, used the "all-planet-conjunction" of 22th May 1059 BCE to prepare a rebellion. Wen was considered to be of perfect integrity and is said to be the inventor of the I-Ching, the Chinese Oracle. He declared himself emperor and introduced a new calendar starting from this year. When he died during the revolt, his son Wu continued victoriously and created the Chou dynasty. The great Chinese historian Su-ma Ch'ien (145 - 87 BCE) said of this: when the five planets consort, this is a change of phase; a new Great Man is set up to possess the four quarters.
3. The battle of Cheng p'u of 632 BCE.
On 23 May 632 BCE the planetary position was repeated, as it occurred at the beginning of the Chou dynasty that brought Wu to power. It was the reason for the battle of Cheng p'u, which would decide the future of China.
4. The Han dynasty and the alignment of planets of 205 BCE.
Emperor Wang manufactured omens for himself to provide strong propaganda for his usurpation of the throne in the year 9 CE. The prophecies were based on the gathering of planets of May 205 BCE that he used to justify and date the foundation of the Han dynasty and which had a politically strong effect.
5. The An Lu-shan rebellion of 750 CE.
This disastrous rebellion was linked politically, temporally, and historically with the close conjunction of 7 October 750 CE.
6. The Sung dynasty of 967 CE.
To the all-naked-eye planets conjunction of 9th April 967 CE, the origin of the Sung dynasty attributes itself.
7. Genghis Khan's battle of 1226 CE
The Mongol emperor is said to have caused the death of 20 million people and probably is together with Mao, Hitler, and Stalin on the list of the greatest mass murderers, if one refrains from including religious groups. In governing his vast empire, Genghis Khan relied on the astrologer named Yeh-lü Ch'u ts'ai, who accompanied him in his enterprises. The occurrence of a solar eclipse on 23 May 1221 led even to the suspension of the short military campaign against China's Hunan province. After capturing Yen-Ch'uan in December 1226 he commanded the extermination of the entire Tungut race in order to have more grazing land for the horses, as his military commanders requested. The planetary conjunction of 12 Dec. 1226 was interpreted by the astrologer as a strict sign against the edict of death. Thereupon the emperor instructed the end of the massacre and the plundering. The following August 1227 Genghis Khan died. His death was concealed, and the king of the Tungut surrendered before the tent in which the dead ruler was hidden.
8. The "Deluge Conjunction" of 1186 CE and other "flood
The scholar Bar Hebraeus wrote of the "all planet conjunction" of 14th September 1186: "..all the astronomers predicted that a universal flood and a mighty whirlwind would take place in the world, and all mankind would perish." Kelej Arslan, the Sultan of Iconium (Turkey), more than other men, believed this silly talk. And he spent large sums of money wastefully, and made excavations in the ground, and built strong houses in the depths thereof. In fact there was circulating the so called "Letter of Toledo", edited by John of Toledo in 1179, which predicted the end of the world and the resurrection of the dead because of this alignment.
More of so-called Toledo letters circulated: In the book of foundation of the Monastery of Zwettl in Austria there is such a letter for the year 1329 in a copy.
Jacob of Klusa from Erfurt, Germany, predicted worlds end for Sept. 1432 because of an astrological alignment. In such letters was written: "... there will be a flood of storms and the sea will rise above its usual level. The hurricanes will be very strong ... and darken the heaven and color the ether black. Horrible noises will be heard and the bodies of humans will be thrown everywhere around, buildings will crash, trees fall, and many mountains and valleys will become plains and vice versa. And the storms will devastate whole cities and make them to ordinary soil, primarily towns that are built on sand."
John of Gmunden (he died in 1442 and was probably a teacher of Georg of Peuerbach, whose pupil was Regiomontanus) responded that the letters should not be believed because they did not tell the truth)
9. Chaucer 1385
The close conjunction on 13th June 1385 in the constellation Gemini or in the water sign Cancer was reason for Chaucer to perpetuate it in his opus "Troilus and Criseyde": "Saturn and Jove in Cancer joined, such that a rain from heaven poured down."
10. The "Deluge Conjunction" of 1524 CE.
The largest tide panic of the outgoing Middle Ages was produced during the conjunction of 5 February 1524 in the water sign of Pisces. In the almanac of Johann Stoeffler, 1499, this conjunction was first pointed out, and later astrologers amplified it into the prophecy of a Universal Deluge. Thousands of authors penned these works and at least 160 books were published about this threatening flood. They used it as a divine sign for propaganda purposes in the religious controversy of the Reformation. Frightened people built arks and climbed to the highest mountains. The prediction of the astrologer of the royal court of Berlin, Johann Carion, was the reason that the royal court, stocked with plentiful provisions, climbed to a mountaintop.
11. Rudolf Hess 1941 CE.
Rudolf Hess, one of the deputies of Adolf Hitler, who is said to have been a believer in astrology and often told of Providence and foreseeing. The "Arian- mania" of the Nazis could have had its origin, etymologically, in desirous longing (from Latin sidus, sideris = constellation) and thus be derived from the constellation Aries. Hess was, since the early days, Hitler's friend and confidant. After the failed Beer Hall Putsch of 1923, Hess was arrested and was with Hitler in prison, where Hitler dictated to him " Mein Kampf." Hess however was more and more in the shadow of other Nazi leaders. In the spring of 1941, the Nazis controlled a majority of Europe, and the "blitzkrieg" against Great Britain already was at its height when Hitler planned the attack in the East, Russia. Before the German attack against Russia, the generals warned against a two-front war and advised Hitler to make peace with England first. Hess sought to use the opportunity and saw an act that would restore his lost prestige as a peacemaker. He wanted to fly personally to England to talk to the king or to Churchill. The plan began to mature in January, when Ernst Schulte-Strathaus, an amateur astrologer on his staff, told him about the conjunction on 10 May 1941.
Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Sun, Venus, and Uranus would be aligned within the close angle of 8° and additionally it would be a full moon. The advice of the Munich astrologer, Maria Nagengast, was that this would be a favorable day for a journey. Another astrologer, Albrecht Haushofer, contacted on his own the Duke of Hamilton via mail. The full moon of this night led to the resolution to make this flight. It permitted Hess to fly by night along the coastline to Scotland up to the brightly illuminated property of the Duke, near Glasgow. Tragically, the German Luftwaffe used the moonlight of the same night to carry out the largest air raid on London. At 17:45 o'clock Hess started from Augsburg, piloting a Messerschmidt-110 fighter, and he bailed out of the plane, parachuting into a Scottish field. He was arrested immediately. On the next morning, he tried to present his unrealistic peace terms. Churchill showed no interest and confined him as a special prisoner of war. For Hitler, this step by Hess was a jolt, and he tried to explain that Hess was ill and had been influenced by bad astrologers. In the "Aktion Hess" operation, the Gestapo arrested on 9 June between 300 and 1,000 astrologers and threw them into the notorious Nazi death camps.
12. The best-seller "Jupiter Effect"
The American authors John Gribbin and Stephen Plagemann (his name means in German literally: troubleman) in 1974 wrote the best-seller "The Jupiter Effect." Therein they described a scenario in which the planetary alignment of November 1982 would release an earthquake, particularly California's long-expected the "Big One, because of the gravitational effects.
13 . Richard Noone's book " 5-5-2000. Ice, The Ultimate Disaster
In this 1980 book, the American author Richard W. Noone refers to the conjunction of 5th May 2000 and draws an absurd world's-end scenario, which he underlines with an abundance of strange archaeological, historical, and mystical data. It culminates in the assumption that due to the unbalanced gravitation of the planetary line, all planets on the other side of the Sun-Earth axis would tilt, and the poles would shift. Noone's prophecy was completely unrealistic and physically impossible. However, the words of the end time of the New Testament are fulfilled literally in a special way: "noone knows the hour and day" (of the end time). Doesn't the English name "NOONE" also have the meaning "no one"?
14. The Nika revolt of January 532 CE (had the alignment of 531 effects on
the outbreak of this riot?)
This event is reported by the historian Procopius who was in the staff of the Byzantine commander Belisarius. This revolt could be in close relationship with the already earlier mentioned important planet conjunction of 531 CE (Aryabhata and Dionysius). The origin of this rebellion in the former Byzantine Constantinople -- today Istanbul, Turkey-- against emperor Justinian and his wifeTheodora is puzzling and is at present under examination. A temporal connection with the alignment seems given, but further conclusions at present would be frivolous. At this rebellion, according to Procopius, more than 30,000 people died, and the Sophia-church, the Zeuxippos-bath, and sections of the imperial residence up to the house of Aries became victims of the flames. (Procopius, Persian Wars I, 24)
15. April 17th, 6 BCE as a further Star of Bethlehem thesis.
US physicist Michael Molnar of Rutgers University 1995 points out in his thesis that the star of Bethlehem occurred in the constellation Aries in April 6 BCE, into the same thinking direction of a planet series. This insignificant conjunction has more than 50° span and can not compete with the triple conjunction in 7 BCE, published by Ferrari D' Ochieppo and earlier by Kepler.
V. Historically and religiously recorded triple conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn and some assumptions.
1. The triple conjunction in the constellation Aries 1536 - 1535 BCE.
This celestial event is the earliest possible computable triple conjunction in a spring equinox constellation. There is also a mythical report of such a conjuction. (Perhaps an earlier event could be the origin of the Ancient Olympic Games, i.e.the race of Kronos and Zeus in the constellation of twins, which was repeated by King Oinomaios and Pelops, as reported by Pausanias) The prophecy to the Pharaoh of a threatening revolt (new age) may be linked with the birth of Moses and permits the assumption that this could be a forerunner of the later Star of Bethlehem (7 BCE). Because of the many parallels (child murder etc.) this event seems to have a later literary repetition in the Gospel of Matthew. This conjunction from July 1536 to Jan 1535 BCE would fit temporally very well in the new Egyptian and Jewish chronology of the British historian David Rohl, who dates the Exodus around 1500 - 1480. Also the recent excavations of the Austrian archaeologist Bietak in Avaris offer evidence that seems to fit within this time frame.
2. The foundation of Persepolis by Darius in 522 BCE.
The Persian king Darius I founded his new capitol, Persepolis at the same Northern latitude of 30° as the pyramids of Gizeh, using the same astronomical data. The total solar eclipse of 10 June 521 BCE and the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn of Dec. 523 BCE until July 522 BCE took place in the constellation VIRGO whose brightest star is Spika. This star was extremely important for astronomical calculations and well known by its name "corn-ear" or ear of wheat. Terms like era derive from this star's name. The constellation Virgo had shifted at this time, because of the precession, to become the new autumnal equinox constellation.(Wolfhard Schlosser's book: Sterne und Steine)
3. The Star of Bethlehem 7 BCE.
This event influenced the Magi in the Gospel of Matthew and was documented globally and exhaustively by the Austrian astronomer Konradin Ferrari D'Ochieppo. It was the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn from May until Dec. 7 BCE. occurring in the spring equinox constellation at that time, Pisces. The first symbols of the "New Agers" at that time were, therefore, a fish and the Pictogram ICHTHYS (Greek: fish). This alignment released the Age of Pisces and was symbolically, but not the actual start of the yearly counting in the Christian calendar.
Pictures: They show the first symbols of Roman Christians: Sheep-herd with sacrificed lamb (Aries); symbol XP (Greek letters for CH of Christos); Swastika; fish; ICOUS, the Greek acronym for fish, which is in Latin ICHTHYS; anchor.
4. Bar Kochba, the "star-son" (born 113 CE?)
To deduce the origin of political leaders from the stars (and their associate divine legitimation) is sufficiently known and can be found also in the Jewish antiquity. Thus the rebellious Jews united in135 CE around the assumed Messiah Bar Kochba, whose name means literally "son of a star." About this person different legends are told in the Talmud literature, and the hero's acts described therein remind one strongly of the Biblical Samson, the Jewish counterpart of the Greek Hercules (see: History of Bar Kochba). The rise and fall of Bar Kochba were connected tightly with his military successes and the interpretation of his name: His original name might have read Bar Koseba, from his hometown Koseba in Judea. The Roman emperor Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus, 76 - 138), who forbade the castration and also circumcision of children, came 132/133 CE to stop the rebellion of the pious Jews, whose leader became Bar Koseba, which was his actual name. The high priests and scholars referred to prophecies and Bible verses, such as: "the Messiah's star will come from Jacob…," and a Jupiter-Saturn conjunction was said to have occurred at Bar Kochba's birth. That was probably the triple alignment of August 113 until January 114 CE between the constellations Aries and Pisces, which was the first triple conjunction after the star of the Magi (7 BCE). The rebellious Jews called him from then on Bar Kochba -- meaning "star son" and Messiah -- and he became at least temporarily a successful political and military leader. Bar Kochba actually drove the Romans out of Jerusalem and soon completely out of the entire land of Israel. After the conquest of Jerusalem, he coined money immediately, which depict a star above the temple. He also introduced a new yearly counting.
His luck in war left Bar Kochba, however. There came famine, disease, snake bite, and betrayal. His end found Bar Kochba at the siege of the fortress Betar by emperor Hadrian and his governor Severus by betrayal or perhaps the bite of a snake in the winter 135/136 CE. His troops (according to a Roman, more than 230,000) were killed or enslaved, along with the scholars and priests. Bar Kochba's name was reinterpreted as "son of lie," according to the Talmud word "kosba," which sounds similar to the word for lie. Thus Bar Kochba suffered the inglorious fate of many losers.
5. The Conjunction of the Arab People 571 CE.
The most famous Islamic astrologer and chronologer Abu Ma'shar el-Bachi, called Albumasar, who died 886 CE in Bagdad, has referred in his "book of the thousands" and in the book of the conjunction to the three-way conjunction of the year 571 CE in the constellation Libra and called it the "conjunction, which announced the Arab people." Generally this position of the planets also is called "conjunction of the Arab religions." Some scholars date the birth of the prophet Mohammed in this year. In 622 CE, when he was about 52 years old, the prophet made his hegira from Mecca to Medina. This is the starting point for yearly counting in the Islamic lunar calendar. Albumasar has mentioned the years up to that conjunction, which was selected by Aryabhata as the beginning of the Kali Yuga (3102 BCE) and counted correctly back with this conjunction as his point of reference. Using this conjunction Albumasar also determined a fictitious date for the creation of the first man (Adam).
6. The year of the Gregorian Calendar reform in 1582 CE and the Jupiter
Saturn alignment of 1583.
Though only a suspect it should be meantioned: In the year that followed the introduction of the Gregorian calendar reform (15th October followed 4th October 1582, because of the cancellation of 10 days) occured a very remarkable "almost perfectly" triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (May -Oct. 1583) taking place in the constellation Aquarius. This alignment, if actually perfectly triple, would have been the only possible triple conjunction over many thousands of years in this constellation, because in the entire period up to the year 3000 CE no more triple conjunctions will take place in the constellation Aquarius whichs role as spring constellation already will have begun surely earlier. The temporal connection of the Gregorian calendar reform with this conjunction may be of random origin but also can give a hint to hidden religious astrological connections. Ther is suspect the Catholic church could have procured itself secretly an allusion of the Star of Bethlehem (triple conjunction in Pisces in 7 BCE). It sounds rather like an orientation upon astronomical conditions by astrological interpretation.
It should be mentioned that in the discussion of Gregorian reform, also J. J. Scaliger played a role. Scaliger held in high esteem Censorinus' book, "De die natale" (about the day of the birth) and called it his "Golden Booklet." This book from the 3rd century contains the above-mentioned quotation of Aristotle about the "Greatest Year" in which a conjunction of all planets takes place.
As it is shown, many scholars from late antiquity up to the end of the Middle
Ages searched for a year in which occurred a conjunction of all planets. The
earliest occidental attempt might have been by Abtenus (Abydenos) and
Aristarchos, who formulated as the first the heliocentric concept of the world
about at the beginning of the common era. It is uncertain if the "tidal (flood)
conjunction" of 3102 BCE was calculated back by the Indian astronomer
Arybahata or was delivered traditionally, which seems improbable. Only China
might be able to refer to an earlier tradition. Unfortunately the western world
here is still missing the necessary access to the ancient sources. While in the
orient they tried to find and calculate such a conjunction in the past (e.g. the
Kali Yuga or the deluge), it had to be a chronologer or a creator of a calendar
who had the greatest interest in finding out when such a conjunction would take
place in the future.
Such a conjunction would begin a new age, especially if it accompanied the new spring equinox constellation. The medieval search for the seal of wisdom, the seal of Solomon, the grail myth, many other legends, and alchemy probably are in close relationship, as well as to the Gregorian Calendar reform. Finally this search perverted to political opportunity and in the Nazi-era to superstitious Providence-mania. But the comparison of history and starry run shows clearly: The precession and the Great Year result in a close connection whose linkage had to be of enormous importance for time calculation.
In the first half of the 6th Century, at the end of antiquity and at the beginning of the Dark Ages there lived two men who would define the ages: One was the Indian astronomer Aryabhata, who determined with the help of the eternal planet tables the beginning of the Indian Kali Yuga on a date, which corresponds to 17 February 3102 BCE. The other one was the Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus (his home was presumably the modern Chechnya, who suggested around the year 530 today's common yearly counting of the Christian calendar.
Why and when did he determine the year 1 A.D. ("anni ab incarnatione Domini Nostri Jesu Christi") in such a way? We owe to him now not only the Millennium, but also that the millennium coincides with a conjunction of all planets, which marks the Great Year on the basis of the eternal planet tables.
For a discussion of how and why there is a turn of an era, anticipated since antiquity, please see the following section:
The adjustment of the year 1 A.D. and its meaning for the year 2000 Part II
With heartful thanks for English translation and
correction to Mrs. Joan Griffith.
Sepp Rothwangl, edited 14.11.2000, CEP: 246 300